Once the site has been prepared, depending on the structure and the suitability of the site, a foundation layer may be poured and malleable reinforcing rod set in it, or the construction of the reinforcing frame can commence directly.

Referring to the model, the rock is “roughed out’ in reinforcing bar, bent, twisted and wired together to broadly define the shape.

These "armatures" are covered with a thick wire mesh, stretched over and wired to the rebar.

Then a specially formulated base layer of concrete (called shotcrete) is blown on to the rods and mesh. This concrete is specially reinforced with fibers to add strength and control cracking under extreme conditions.

This increased stickiness aloows the concrete to be applied to the undersides of overhangs and other difficult situations where ordinary concrete would slump or drop away.

After it dries a second layer of dyed cement is spread over the base coat. Using a variety of hand tools, this layer is sculpted, transforming the cement shapes into recreations of rock.

Finally, color is applied with concrete stains and latex paints using a variety of application methods and then "set in stone" forever with a penetrating sealer